Most of my vintage Christmas postcards bear extremely short messages and this one is no exception:
“Best wishes to you for a Merry Christmas”
What I found most interesting is the slogan postmark. Sent from Chicago, Illinois, at 11:00 the on Christmas Eve morning, some ten months following the United States’ entry into World War I and just over two weeks after the nation declared war on Austria-Hungary on December 7, the cancellation reads:
“Food will win the war. Don’t waste it.”
The design on the picture side is another embossed one, featuring two poinsettias and a framed image of a snow-covered church and home along with the simple inscription, “Best Christmas Wishes.”
I like to include appropriate flags with my postcard and stamp articles at, at first glance, you might recognize the one above as the State Flag of Illinois. This is, however, a previous version, including the central elements of the State Seal which had been adopted in 1868 and not including the word ILLINOIS. The original version of the flag was adopted in 1915 as the result of a campaign started by Ella Park Lawrence in 1912. She had been unsuccessful as state regent of the Daughters of the American Revolution but continued to lobby members of the Illinois General Assembly. On April 1, 1914, Lawrence sent a letter to every Illinois chapter of the DAR announcing a flag design contest with the winner receiving a prize of $25. Thirty-five entries were received with that of Lucy Derwent becoming the official state banner on July 6, 1915.
This flag was replaced in 1918 with a design by Wallace Rice to mark Illinois’s first 100 years of statehood. This flag had three horizontal bands of equal width alternating white, blue, white. It was charged with 21 stars along the edge of the hoist. There were 10 blue stars in the upper white band and 10 in the lower white band, representing the 10 northern and 10 southern states at the time of Illinois’ statehood in 1818. The center blue band had one large, white star for the state of Illinois itself.
In the 1960s, Chief Petty Officer Bruce McDaniel petitioned to have the name of the state added to the flag. He noted that many of the people he served with during the Vietnam War did not recognize the banner. Governor Richard B. Ogilvie signed the addition to the flag into law on September 17, 1969, and the new flag was designed by Mrs. Sanford Hutchinson and became the official flag on July 1, 1970.
I love receiving postcards covered with stamps, particularly when they are colorful as are most Christmas stamps. I received this one from Tina in Estonia in late December 2016, having been mailed on the 7th from the Pärnu, a popular summer holiday resort town on an inlet of the Baltic Sea’s Gulf of Livonia in the southwestern portion of the country. The card bears a total of six stamps — three Christmas stamps and three definitives.
Perona (Alt-Pernau in German and Vana-Pärnu in Estonian) was founded by the bishop of Ösel–Wiek circa 1251, suffered heavily under pressure of the concurrent town, and was finally destroyed around 1600. Another town, Embeke (lNeu-Pernau or Uus-Pärnu) was founded by the Livonian Order, who began building an Ordensburg nearby in 1265. The latter town, then known by the German name of Pernau, was a member of the Hanseatic League and an important ice-free harbor for Livonia. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took control of town between 1560–1617; the Poles and Lithuanians fought the Swedes nearby in 1609. Sweden took control of the town during the 16th-century Livonian War, but it was subsequently taken by the Russian Empire in the 1710 Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia and the 1721 Treaty of Nystad, following the Great Northern War. It belonged to Imperial Russian Governorate of Livonia then. The city is occasionally referred to as Pyarnu, an incorrect reverse-transliteration from Russian Пярну.
The town became part of independent Estonia in 1918 following World War I.
The city was occupied by the Soviet Red Army along with the rest of Estonia in 1940 during World War II, and its German population left the town. It was then occupied by Germany from 1941 until 1944 before it was reoccupied by the Soviet Union as part of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1944-1991. During the Great Northern War, the University of Dorpat (Tartu) was relocated to Pernau from 1699–1710. The university has a branch campus in Pärnu today (1,000 students in the 2004/2005 school year).
Majority of the tourists in Pärnu are Finns, Swedes and Russians. In 1837, a tavern near the beach was made into a bathing establishment. The establishment accommodated 5–6 bathrooms that provided hot seawater baths in summer and operated as a sauna in winter. The wooden building was burnt down in the course of World War I. In 1927, the present stone building of Pärnu Mud Baths was erected at the same site. Since 1996 Pärnu has been known as Estonia’s Summer Capital.
Since 2015, Pärnu has hosted the annual Weekend Festival, the largest dance music festival in the Nordic and Baltic region. Stages are headlined by DJs from across the electronic dance music spectrum, with audiovisual support. Some of the past and upcoming artists to perform include Martin Garrix, David Guetta, Avicii, Steve Aoki, The Chainsmokers, Tiësto, Armin van Buuren, Hardwell, Robin Schulz, Afrojack, deadmau5, Knife Party and many more.
Pärnu is also known for its seawall. According to legend, if a couple holds hands while journeying along the wall and kisses at its endpoint they will stay together forever.
The postcard is franked with six Estonian stamps, three of which are Christmas stamps. The oldest is Scott #556, a 4.40-Estonian kroon (0.28 euro cents) stamp issued on November 22, 2006, picturing Santa Claus skiing across small snow dunes.. Next, is Scott #717, a 45-euro cent stamp released on November 22, 2012, also showing a skiing Santa. For a change, we get a gingerbread star on Michel #877 which appeared on November 18, 2016, with a value of 65 euro cents. Three definitive stamps bisect the center of the postcard with two copies of the 5-euro cent yellow Post Horn (Michel #863) from May 19, 2016, and one of Scott #560 released on January 17, 2007, denominated at 0.30 Estonian kroon (2 euro cents) picturing an ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare).
The postcard picture side has a wonderful Nordic painting of elves hitching a sleigh to be pulled by a horse. Are these Santa’s helpers at the North Pole? By the way, the legend on the card — Imelisi püly — means “Wonderful walk!”, not “Merry Christmas” as I’d assumed for the past two years. “Merry Christmas” in Estonian is häid jõule.
I began Christmas early this year, having decided to post (almost) an entire month of articles devoted to holiday stamps on my A Stamp A Day blog. Day 8 was a the longest yet (more than 5,700 words) about the history and traditions of the Christmas tree and I’ll soon begin work on today’s post which will deal with ornaments and other decorations. Being a Sunday and a rare day off (November was possibly my busiest month ever!), it’s the perfect time to initiate a Christmas postcards series as well. However, the postcard articles will be much, much shorter than those dealing with the stamps and the subjects thereon.
While Christmas cards are becoming more and more common here in Thailand (New Year’s cards being predominate in this Buddhist country) and I receive a fair amount from overseas each year, Christmas postcards are quite few and far between. I received several a couple of years ago as a result of joining a swap club on Facebook but I have yet to see any in 2018 thus far. However, postcards with a holiday theme were quite common in the late 19th century until the 1950s. While I don’t usually seek out vintage cards, sometimes I stumble across something i like. Thus, I now have a small but growing collection from the early years of the 20th century.
My oldest Christmas postcard is the only one I own that is actually postmarked on Christmas Day itself. The silver-colored card has an embossed twig of holly and berries above a painted winter scene of a farmhouse and barn with the simple message “A Merry Christmas” in red. The card bears no indication of publisher but says that it was “Printed in Germany.” Bearing a Brooklyn, New York, postmark, it was mailed at 10 a.m. on December 25, 1907, to an address within the same city. The message reads:
A Merry Christmas and a bright and Happy New Year to you and all the family is the sincerest wish of your loving friend.
In philately a maximum card (also known as a maxi-card, or maxicard) is a postcard with a postage stamp placed on the picture side of the card where the stamp and card match or are in “maximum concordance”. The cancellation or postmark is usually related to the image on the front of the card and the stamp. Not every country issues maximum cards (i.e. USA does not) and some who do (Germany, for example) have only a limited number of releases every year whereas others issue maximum cards for every stamp (such as Australia). The collecting of maximum cards is known as maximaphily.
I enjoy picking up maximum cards whenever one strikes my interest but I still don’t have very many in my collection. A recent purchase was a set of four cards bearing German semi-postal stamps. The stamps were issued on April 12, 1983, and portray historic motorcycles. Each included a surtax beyond the regular denomination which raised money for the benefit of young people. My favorite of these was the 1922 Megola Sport on the 80-pfennig + 40-pfennig value (Scott #B607). Not only is the motorcycle quite striking in appearance but it featured an unusual design element — front-wheel drive.
A consortium of three German engineers — Hans Meixner, Cockerell (who originally spelled his name Gockerell) and Otto Landgraf — founded in Munich in 1921, Megola got its name by combining the first two letters of each of their surnames. Cockerell had designed a motorcycle in 1920 , powered by a three-cylinder rotary engine located within the rear wheel. As plans to commercialize this venture progressed, the engine was replaced with a five-cylinder model and Cockerell hit upon the novel idea of locating the engine in the front wheel instead.
This wasn’t the first attempt at a front-wheel drive motorcycle. British firm Radco had produced an abortive prototype in 1919. Cockerell’s was the first “functional” design, with that adjective decidedly belonging in quotations. Locating the powertrain within the front wheel conveniently sidestepped the problem of transferring power to a turning wheel. It was hardly a perfect solution, however: The spokes are laced directly to the crankcase so there is no transmission and it is a single-speed machine. There is no clutch, either, which makes riding the Megola a particularly challenging proposition.
The engine contained five cylinders with side-mounted valves, each of which displaced 128cc, with a bore/stroke of 52x60mm, and a total displacement of 640 cc (39 cu in). The 5 cylinders rotated around the front axle at 6x the wheel speed; thus while the cylinders were at maximum of 3600rpm the front wheel was turning at 600rpm, or roughly 60 mph (given the wheel diameter). A hand-controlled butterfly valve was located in the hollow crankshaft to regulate throttle. Power output was a modest 14 bhp (10 kW) but was applied directly to the wheel. This arrangement produced a very low center of gravity and provided for excellent handling.
The engine was very flexible, lacking both a clutch and a transmission. Starting it required a person to either spin the front wheel while the bike was on its stand, or to push-start. The cylinders could be disassembled without having to remove all the wheel spokes in order to service the engine. The tires were tubed with the front inner-tube being a circular sausage shape rather than a complete doughnut-like torus shape, so that it could be changed without removing the wheel and engine. The box section frame contained the main fuel tank which fed by gravity a smaller tank mounted on the axle. The front suspension consisted of semi-elliptical springs.
Engine lubrication was gravity-fed to the main-bearing housing from a 4-liter tank mounted on the left steering strut. A matching, gravity-feed fuel tank on the right side held a small supply of fuel, which has to be regularly hand-primed from the main fuel load inside the pressed-steel monocoque frame. A Bosch magneto fixed to the planetary-gear housing provided spark, and an oil pump driven via bevel gears off the magneto circulated oil thorough the engine. A single updraft carburetor was mounted on the right side of the wheel. Thanks to the engine’s front-and-center location, air-cooling the cylinders was not a concern.
The top speed was 85 km/h (52 mph) while later, sportier models were said to be capable of 140 km/h (88 mph). Megola manufactured two models: a Touring version with a sprung rear wheel, a semi-enclosed bucket seat and a mild, 14-bhp engine; and a stripped-down Sport variant with a rigid chassis, sprung saddle and a high-performance, 25-bhp engine. Believe it or not, the Sport was a semi-successful racing machine. Without any clutch, gearbox or front brake it wasn’t particularly useful for road racing, but it was well suited for oval-track racing on dirt or other low-traction surfaces. Megola Works racer Toni Bauhofer even defeated the BMW factory team to win the 1924 Schleizer-Dreieck national championship race.
Approximately 2,000 Megolas were built and sold between 1922 and 1936. Perhaps only 10 rideable examples remain. One was displayed at the Guggenheim Museum ‘Art of the Motorcycle’ exhibition in New York City. Apparently, these were quite a challenge to drive, having no clutch and a braking system that didn’t exactly work. The owner’s manual “included special instructions for navigating then-newfangled traffic lights, advising the Megola rider to ‘orbit’ until the light changed and he could depart the scene.” For more on the experience of riding a Megola Sport, have a look at this Motorcyclist blog post.
As for the stamp, it was designed by Heinz Schillinger. There were 4.977.000 copies printed using offset lithography, perforated 14, and it was valid for use until June 30, 2002.
October is National Stamp Collecting Month in the United States as well as The Philippines. This week is also International Letter Writing Week and Tuesday is designated as World Post Day. Thus, it’s an even better time than most to write postcards and letters and think about stamps. We have the man in the above-pictured PHQ card to thank for all of this, Sir Rowland Hill. Born on December 3, 1795 (which happens to be my own birthday as well), Hill was an English teacher, inventor and social reformer. He campaigned for a comprehensive reform of the postal system, based on the concept of Uniform Penny Post and his solution of prepayment, facilitating the safe, speedy and cheap transfer of letters. Hill later served as a government postal official, and he is credited with originating the basic concepts of the modern postal service, including the invention of the postage stamp.
In the 1830s at least 12½% of all British mail was conveyed under the personal frank of peers, dignitaries and members of parliament, while censorship and political espionage were conducted by postal officials. Fundamentally, the postal system was mismanaged, wasteful, expensive and slow. It had become inadequate for the needs of an expanding commercial and industrial nation. There is a well-known story, probably apocryphal, about how Hill gained an interest in reforming the postal system; he apparently noticed a young woman too poor to redeem a letter sent to her by her fiancé. At that time, letters were normally paid for by the recipient, not the sender. The recipient could simply refuse delivery. Frauds were commonplace; for example, coded information could appear on the cover of the letter; the recipient would examine the cover to gain the information, and then refuse delivery to avoid payment. Each individual letter had to be logged. In addition, postal rates were complex, depending on the distance and the number of sheets in the letter.
Rowland Hill first started to take a serious interest in postal reforms in 1835. He commenced a detailed study of documents given to him in 1836 and this led him to the publication, in early 1837, of a pamphlet called Post Office Reform its Importance and Practicability. The report called for “low and uniform rates” according to weight, rather than distance. Hill’s study reported his findings and those of Charles Babbage that most of the costs in the postal system were not for transport, but rather for laborious handling procedures at the origins and the destinations.
Costs could be reduced dramatically if postage were prepaid by the sender, the prepayment to be proven by the use of prepaid letter sheets or adhesive stamps (adhesive stamps had long been used to show payment of taxes, on documents for example). Letter sheets were to be used because envelopes were not yet common; they were not yet mass-produced, and in an era when postage was calculated partly on the basis of the number of sheets of paper used, the same sheet of paper would be folded and serve for both the message and the address. In addition, Hill proposed to lower the postage rate to a penny per half ounce, without regard to distance.
In the House of Lords the Postmaster, Lord Lichfield, a Whig, denounced Hill’s “wild and visionary schemes.” William Leader Maberly, Secretary to the Post Office, also a Whig, denounced Hill’s study: “This plan appears to be a preposterous one, utterly unsupported by facts and resting entirely on assumption”. But merchants, traders and bankers viewed the existing system as corrupt and a restraint of trade. They formed a “Mercantile Committee” to advocate for Hill’s plan and pushed for its adoption. In 1839, Hill was given a two-year contract to run the new system.
The Uniform Fourpenny Post rate was introduced that lowered the cost to fourpence from December 5, 1839, then to the penny rate on January 10, 1840, even before stamps or letter sheets could be printed. The volume of paid internal correspondence increased dramatically, by 120%, between November 1839 and February 1840. This initial increase resulted from the elimination of “free franking” privileges and fraud.
Prepaid letter sheets, with a design by William Mulready, were distributed in early 1840. These Mulready envelopes were not popular and were widely satirized. According to a brochure distributed by the National Postal Museum (now the British Postal Museum & Archive), the Mulready envelopes threatened the livelihoods of stationery manufacturers, who encouraged the satires. They became so unpopular that the government used them on official mail and destroyed many others.
However, as a niche commercial publishing industry for machine-printed illustrated envelopes subsequently developed in Britain and elsewhere, it is likely that it was the sentiment of the illustration that provoked the ridicule and led to their withdrawal. Indeed, in the absence of examples of machine-printed illustrated envelopes prior to this it may be appropriate to recognize the Mulready envelope as a significant innovation in its own right. Machine-printed illustrated envelopes are a mainstay of the direct mail industry.
In May 1840, the world’s first adhesive postage stamps were distributed. With an elegant engraving of the young Queen Victoria (whose 21st birthday was celebrated that month), the Penny Black was an instant success. Refinements, such as perforations to ease the separating of the stamps, were instituted with later issues.
The earliest known picture postcard was a hand-painted design on card, posted in Fulham in London by the writer Theodore Hook to himself in 1840, and bearing a Penny Black stamp. He probably created and posted the card to himself as a practical joke on the postal service, since the image is a caricature of workers in the post office. In 2002, the postcard sold for £31,750.
In recognition of his contributions to the development of the modern postal system, Hill is memorialized at the Universal Postal Union, the UN agency charged with regulating the international postal system. Altogether, 147 countries have issued stamps commemorating him.
The PHQ card featured in this article was released by Royal Mail in conjunction with a four-stamp “Communications” set on September 5. 1995 (Scott #1625-1628). The stamps were designed and engraved by master engraver Czeslaw Slania. A copy of the actual stamp, as well as the Penny Black that I have in my collection (note the “MJ” control letters match my own initials) are shown above.
You can read more about Rowland Hill and the development of postage stamps on my main blog, A Stamp A Day, which now has some 832 articles.
It has been far too long since I’ve posted to this blog (or since I’ve received a postcard, for that matter). I hope to add a few cards here in the next few weeks, starting with this vintage map card showing San Francisco Bay in California. San Francisco is probably my favorite city in the United States and I have many fond memories visiting relatives around the Bay while growing up.
My most recent “extended stay” was in late May and early June of 1997 when I spent around 10 days there in order to attend the Pacific 97 International Stamp Exhibition at the Moscone Center. During this time, I stayed with my Uncle Ed and Aunt Gladys in the heights outside of Walnut Creek (using the BART trains as transport between the East Bay and downtown each day). I believe my first visit to this house owned (built?) by my dad’s older brother must have been around 1972. I only made it to the summit nearby of nearby Mount Diablo once, when I was perhaps 13 or 14 years old.
Unfortunately, I don’t have any postcards from Walnut Creek but I was surprised to see the town (and Mount Diablo) marked on this particular map-card which was mailed from San Francisco on the evening of April 25, 1923.
Located in Contra Costa County 16 miles (26 kilometers) east of the city of Oakland, Walnut Creek has a total estimated population of 69,122 and serves as a hub for its neighboring cities because of its location at the junction of the highways from Sacramento and San Jose (I-680) and San Francisco/Oakland (SR-24) and its accessibility by BART. Its active downtown neighborhood features hundred-year-old buildings and extensive high-end retail establishments, restaurants and entertainment venues.
There are three bands of Bay Miwok Indians associated with early Walnut Creek: the Saclan, whose territory extended through the hills east of present-day Oakland, Rossmoor, Lafayette, Moraga and Walnut Creek; the Volvon (also spelled Bolbon, Wolwon and Zuicun) near Mt. Diablo; and the Tactan located on the San Ramon Creek in Danville and Walnut Creek.
Today’s Walnut Creek is located within the earlier site of four Mexican land grants. One of these land grants – measuring 18,000 acres (73 km²) – belonged to Juana Sanchez de Pacheco, who eventually passed the land down to her two grandsons. Ygnacio Sibrian, one of the grandsons, created the first roofed home in the valley in about 1850. The grant was called Rancho Arroyo de Las Nueces y Bolbones, named after the principal waterway, Arroyo de las Nueces (Walnut Creek), as well as for the local group of indigenous Americans (Bolbones). The Arroyo de las Nueces was named for the evidence of the native species of walnut tree, the California Walnut.
With the coming of American settlers following the Mexican–American War, a small settlement called “The Corners” emerged, named because it was the place where roads from Pacheco and Lafayette met. The site of this first American settlement is found today at the intersection of Mt. Diablo Boulevard and North Main Street. The first town settler was William Slusher, who built a dwelling on the bank of Walnut Creek, which was called “Nuts Creek” by the Americans in 1849. In the year 1855, Milo Hough of Lafayette built the hotel named “Walnut Creek House” in the corners. A blacksmith shop and a store soon joined the hotel, and a year later, Hiram Penniman (who built Shadelands Ranch) laid out the town site and realigned the Main Street of today. Two decades later, the community changed its name from The Corners to Walnut Creek.
In December 1862 a United States Post Office was established, and the community was named “Walnut Creek”. The downtown street patterns laid out in 1871–1872 by pioneer Homer Shuey on a portion of one of his family’s large cattle ranches are still present today.
Walnut Creek began to grow with the arrival of Southern Pacific Railroad service in 1891. On October 21, 1914, the town and the surrounding area of 500 acres (2.0 km²), were incorporated as the eighth city in Contra Costa County. A branch line of the Southern Pacific railroad ran through Walnut Creek until the late 1970s. The East Bay Regional Park District’s Iron Horse Trail, used by walkers, runners and bikers, runs over what were portions of that branch line. The mainline of the Sacramento Northern Railway passed through Walnut Creek. Both railroads had stations here. Today, the Antioch–SFO/Millbrae line of the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) serves Walnut Creek with a station adjacent to Highway 680.
With the 1951 opening of the downtown Broadway Shopping Center (now Broadway Plaza), Contra Costa County’s first major retail center, the city took off in a new direction, and its population more than quadrupled – from 2,460 in 1950 to 9,903 in 1960.
Walnut Creek – the actual waterway that runs through town – has been routed underneath downtown through a series of tunnels starting at the southwest end of Macy’s and ending just southwest of Maria Maria Restaurant.
Walnut Creek owns more open space per capita than any other community in the state of California. In 1974, Walnut Creek voters approved a $6.7 million bond measure that allowed the city to purchase 1,800 acres (730 ha) of undeveloped hillsides, ridge lines, and park sites. Walnut Creek owns parts of Lime Ridge Open Space, Shell Ridge Open Space, Acalanes Ridge Open Space, and Sugarloaf Open Space. The East Bay Regional Park District operates Diablo Foothills Regional Park and Castle Rock Regional Recreation Area, both in Walnut Creek.
Mount Diablo is nearby, south of Clayton and northeast of Danville. It is an isolated upthrust peak of 3,849 feet (1,173 m), visible from most of the San Francisco Bay Area, appearing from many angles to be a double pyramid. It has many subsidiary peaks, the largest and closest of which is the other half of the double pyramid, North Peak, nearly as high in elevation at 3,557 feet (1,084 m) and about a mile northeast of the main summit. The summit is accessible by foot, bicycle, or motor vehicle. Road access is via North Gate Road or South Gate Road.
The peak is in Mount Diablo State Park, a state park of about 20,000 acres (8,000 ha). The park was the first public open space of a complex — according to Save Mount Diablo — now including 38 preserves, including nearby city open spaces, regional parks, watersheds, that are buffered in some areas with private lands protected with conservation easements. Preserved lands on and around Mount Diablo total more than 90,000 acres (36,000 ha).
Mount Diablo is sacred to many California Native American peoples; according to Miwok mythology and Ohlone mythology, it was the point of creation. Prior to European entry, the creation narrative varied among surrounding local groups. In one surviving narrative fragment, Mount Diablo and Reed’s Peak (Mount Tamalpais) were surrounded by water; from these two islands the creator Coyote and his assistant Eagle-man made Native American people and the world. In another, Molok the Condor brought forth his grandson Wek-Wek the Falcon Hero, from within the mountain.
In 1851 the south peak of the mountain was selected by Colonel Leander Ransom as the initial point — where the Mount Diablo Base and Mount Diablo Meridian lines intersect — for cadastral surveys of a large area. Subsequent surveys in much of California, Nevada and Oregon were located with reference to this point. Toll roads up the mountain were created in 1874 by Joseph Seavey Hall and William Camron (sometimes “Cameron”); Hall’s Mount Diablo Summit Road was officially opened on May 2, 1874. Camron’s “Green Valley” road opened later. Hall also built the 16-room Mountain House Hotel near the junction of the two roads, a mile below the summit (2,500 foot elevation, operated through the 1880s, abandoned 1895, burned circa 1901). As far north as Meridian Road, on the outskirts of Chico, California, the summit was used as a reference point. The road is colinear with the summit, and is named for the meridian which intersects it.
An aerial navigation beacon, the Standard Diablo tower was erected by Standard Oil at the summit in 1928. The 10-million-candlepower beacon became known as the “Eye of Diablo” and was visible for a hundred miles.
Nearly one year ago, I received my first two postcards from the Republic of Croatia — one from Split and the other, this card, from the capital of Zagreb. Mailed about a week apart, they arrived in Thailand on the same day. While preparing for this article, I realized that I hadn’t yet written a country profile about the current independent republic for my daily stamp blog so I set about to do just that. An account of the recent history of Croatia (from the 1990s until the present date) can be found on that blog, as can a history of the World War II German- and Italian-controlled but otherwise unrecognized Independent State of Croatia.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia, located in the northwest of the country along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. It lies at an elevation of approximately 400 feet (122 meters) above sea level. The estimated population of the city in 2018 is 809,773. The population of Zagreb urban agglomeration is slightly above 1.1 million inhabitants and it makes approximately a quarter of a total population of Croatia.
The oldest settlement located near today’s Zagreb was a Roman town of Andautonia, now Šćitarjevo, which existed between the 1st and the 5th century AD. The first recorded appearance of the name Zagreb is dated to 1094, at which time the city existed as two different city centers: the smaller, eastern Kaptol, inhabited mainly by clergy and housing Zagreb Cathedral, and the larger, western Gradec, inhabited mainly by craftsmen and merchants. Zagreb became a free royal town in 1242.
In 1851, Zagreb had its first mayor, Janko Kamauf. Gradec and Kaptol were united in 1851 by ban Josip Jelačić, The first railway line to connect Zagreb with Zidani Most and Sisak was opened in 1862 and in 1863 Zagreb received a gasworks. The Zagreb waterworks was opened in 1878.
After the 1880 Zagreb earthquake, up to the 1914 outbreak of World War I, development flourished and the town received the characteristic layout which it has today. The first horse-drawn tram was used in 1891. The construction of the railway lines enabled the old suburbs to merge gradually into Donji Grad, characterized by a regular block pattern that prevails in Central European cities. This bustling core hosts many imposing buildings, monuments, and parks as well as a multitude of museums, theatres and cinemas. An electric power plant was built in 1907.
During World War II, Zagreb became the capital of the Independent State of Croatia, which was backed by the Nazi Germany and Italians. The history of Zagreb in World War II became rife with incidents of regime terror and resistance sabotages, and the Ustaša regime had thousands of people executed during the war in and near the city. The city was liberated by the Partisans at the end of the war. From 1945 until 1990, Zagreb was the capital of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, one of the six constituent socialist republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
During the period of former Yugoslavia, Zagreb remained an important economic center of the country, and was the second largest city. After Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia, Zagreb was proclaimed its capital..
Zagreb has a special status in the Croatia’s administrative division and is a consolidated city-county (but separated from Zagreb County). It is administratively subdivided into 17 city districts. Most of them are at a low elevation along the river Sava valley, whereas northern and northeastern city districts, such as Podsljeme and Sesvete districts are situated in the foothills of the Medvednica mountain, making the city’s geographical image rather diverse. The city extends over 19 miles (30 km) east-west and around 12 miles (20 km) north-south.
The transport connections, concentration of industry, scientific, and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie Zagreb’s leading economic position in Croatia. It is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies, and almost all government ministries. Almost all of the largest Croatian companies, media, and scientific institutions have their headquarters in the city. Zagreb is the most important transport hub in Croatia where Central Europe, the Mediterranean and Southeast Europe meet, making the Zagreb area the center of the road, rail and air networks of Croatia. It is a city known for its diverse economy, high quality of living, museums, sporting, and entertainment events. Its main branches of economy are high-tech industries and the service sector.
The Zagreb Cathedral on Kaptol is a Roman Catholic institution and not only the tallest building in Croatia but also the most monumental sacral building in Gothic style southeast of the Alps. It is dedicated to the Assumption of Mary and to kings Saint Stephen and Saint Ladislaus. The cathedral is typically Gothic, as is its sacristy, which is of great architectural value. Its prominent spires are considered to be landmarks as they are visible from most parts of the city.
In 1093, when King Ladislaus moved the bishop’s chair from Sisak to Zagreb, he proclaimed the existing church as a cathedral. Construction on the cathedral started shortly after his death and was finished in 1217 and consecrated by king Andrew II of Hungary. The building was destroyed by the Mongols in 1242 but rebuilt by bishop Timotej a few years later. At the end of the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire invaded Croatia, triggering the construction of fortification walls around the cathedral, some of which are still intact. In the 17th century, a fortified renaissance watchtower was erected on the south side, and was used as a military observation point, because of the Ottoman threat.
The cathedral was severely damaged in the 1880 Zagreb earthquake. The main nave collapsed and the tower was damaged beyond repair. The restoration of the cathedral in the Neo-Gothic style was led by Hermann Bollé, bringing the cathedral to its present form. As part of that restoration, two spires 354 feet (108 m) high were raised on the western side, both of which are now in the process of being restored as part of an extensive general restoration of the cathedral.
The cathedral is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 1000 kuna banknote issued in 1993.
When facing the portal, the building is 150 feet (46 m) wide and 354 feet (108 m) high. The cathedral contains a relief of Cardinal Aloysius Stepinac with Christ done by the Croatian sculptor Ivan Meštrović. The cathedral was visited by Pope Benedict XVI on June 5, 2011, where he celebrated Sunday Vespers and prayed before the tomb of Blessed Aloysius Stepinac.
While not the postcard that has travelled the farthest to reach me in southern Thailand, my first card received from the Republic of Chile (República de Chile), is definitely in the top five at 16,364 kilometers (10,168 miles) from Phuket. It took a month-and-a-half to make the journey. It was a swap with a member of a Facebook group and was mailed from the city of Valdivia — the capital of Los Ríos Region and the capital of Valdivia Province.
The city of Valdivia and the Chiloé Archipelago were once the two southernmost outliers of the Spanish Empire. From 1645 to 1740, the city depended directly on the Viceroyalty of Peru, which financed the building of the Valdivian fort system that turned Valdivia into one of the most fortified cities of the New World. In the second half of the 19th century, Valdivia was the port of entry for German immigrants who settled in the city and surrounding areas.
In 1960, Valdivia was severely damaged by the Great Chilean earthquake, the most powerful earthquake ever recorded at magnitude 9.5. Debris and destroyed buildings from the earthquake can still be found in the suburban areas. In addition, land subsidence and sediments have resulted in complex navigation challenges on the local rivers and in some areas, ruins of buildings are visible from the water.
The postcard pictures several views found along one of the most beautiful road journeys in the world — the Carretera Austral (“Southern Way” in English). This is the name given to Chile’s Route 7 (CH-7), which runs about 770 miles (1,240 kilometers) from Puerto Montt to Villa O’Higgins through rural Patagonia.
Carretera Austral provides road access to the XI Region of Chile’s Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Region and southern part of the Province of Palena in the X Region of Los Lagos. These areas are sparsely populated and despite its length, Carretera Austral provides access to only about 100,000 people. South of the highway’s start in Puerto Montt, Coyhaique (population 44,850) is the largest city along it.
Due to the complicated geographical characteristics of the territory, in which the Patagonian Andes predominate, lakes, turbulent rivers and the presence of ice fields, the construction of the Carretera Austral is in permanent repair even when most of its sections are operational. On the other hand, a large part of the route lacks paving.
Construction of the highway was commenced in 1976 under the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet in order to connect a number of remote communities. Before that, in the 1950s and 1970s, there had been unsuccessful attempts to build access roads in the region. It is among the most ambitious infrastructure projects developed in Chile during the 20th century.
Carretera Austral has a strategic purpose due to the difficult access by land to a significant portion of Chile’s southern territory. This area is characterized by thick forests, fjords, glaciers, canals and steep mountains. Access by sea and air is also a complex task due to extreme winter weather conditions. For decades, most of the land transportation had to cross the border to Argentina in order to reach again Chile’s Patagonia. These difficulties were deepened during the 1970s due to the Beagle Conflict crisis. In order to strengthen the Chilean presence in these isolated territories and ensure the land connection to the rest of the country, the government planned the construction of this road, which was executed by the Chilean Army’s Engineering Command. More than 10,000 soldiers worked in its construction. Many of them lost their lives during this effort.
The highway opened to traffic in 1988, and by 1996 was completed to Puerto Yungay. The last 62 miles (100 kilometers )to Villa O’Higgins were opened in 2000. In 2003, a branch road to Caleta Tortel was finished.
Villa O’Higgins is a small town in the Aysén Region, located 137 miles (220 km) south of Cochrane and 342 miles (550 km) south of Coyhaique. Founded in 1966 and named after the Chilean independence hero Bernardo O’Higgins, it is the capital of the O’Higgins commune of Capitán Prat Province. Villa O’Higgins is the gateway to the Southern Patagonian Ice Field. The town has an airport, several guesthouses, a radio station, and a number of shops. In the summer (December to February) a regular boat service takes passengers from Villa O’Higgins across the O’Higgins / San Martín Lake to Candelario Mansilla, from where it is possible to cross the border into Argentina via a footpath (no road).
Traveling the entire route of the Carretera Austral requires the use of three ferries:
a 30-minute crossing about 28 miles (45 km) south of the start of the highway in Puerto Montt
a 5-hour crossing from Hornopiren (68 miles, 110 km south of Puerto Montt) to Caleta Gonzalo
a 50-minute crossing from Puerto Yungay to Rio Bravo, connecting to the final 62 miles (100 km) of the highway
The highway began as almost entirely unpaved, but more sections are becoming paved each year. As of March 2018, the paved road ends at Villa Cerro Castillo, with roadworks going on just south of there.
There is also a plan to extend the road to Magallanes Region, which still lacks domestic road connection to the rest of Chile. This means constructing a 581-mile (935 km) branch Rio Bravo-Ventisquero Montt-Puerto Natales, with nine ferry crossings planned. By January 2007, the construction on the Rio Bravo-Ventisquero Montt section had begun, with the branch off point from the main Rio Bravo-Villa O’Higgins road being at 48.00°S 73.13°W.
I have collected stamps much longer than I’ve collected postcards. Nowadays, I love to combine the two hobbies and yet I have relatively few maximum cards. Also known as a maxi-card or maxicard, this is a postcard with a postage stamp placed on the picture side of the card where the stamp and card match or are in maximum concordance. The cancellation or postmark is usually related to the image on the front of the card and the stamp.
Not every country issues maximum cards (the United States does not) and some who do (Germany, for example) have only a limited number of releases every year whereas others issue maximum cards for every stamp, such as Australia. The collecting of maximum cards is known as maximaphily.
This particular card doesn’t match the design of the stamp but both commemorate the opening of the First Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge (สะพานมิตรภาพ ไทย-ลาว แห่งที่ 1, — Sapan Mittrapap Tai Lao Hen T-Nun in Thai and ຂົວມິດຕະພາບ ລາວ-ໄທ ແຫ່ງທຳອິດ — Kua Mittapap Lao Tai Hen Tam-It in Lao). The stamp affixed to the picture side of the card was released by Australia on the opening date of the bridge — April 8, 1994, and is listed in the Scott Postage Stamp Catalogue as Australia #1371.
Why did Australia issue a stamp picturing a bridge that crosses the Mekong River, connecting Nong Khai Province and the city of Nong Khai in Thailand with Vientiane Prefecture in Laos? The Australian government funded the approximately £19 million cost of the bridge as development aid for Laos. Also, it was designed and built by Australian companies as a demonstration of their ability to complete major infrastructural projects in Southeast Asia. The concept design of a balanced cantilever bridge was proposed by Bruce Ramsay of VSL with the final design carried out by Maunsell consulting engineers.
With a length of (0.73 miles (1,170 meters, the bridge has two 11-foot, 6-inch (3.5 m)-wide road lanes, two 4-foot, 11-inch (1.5 m)-wide footpaths and a single 3-foot, 3 3/8-inch (1,000 mm) gauge railway line in the middle, straddling the narrow central reservation. Opened on April 8, 1994, it was the first bridge across the lower Mekong, and the second on the full course of the Mekong. The official name of the bridge was changed by the addition of “First” after the Second Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge further south at Savannakhet opened in January 2007.
Traffic on the bridge drives on the left, as in Thailand, while traffic in Laos drives on the right. The changeover at the Lao end, just before the border post, is controlled by traffic lights. A shuttle bus service operates across the bridge, between the Lao and Thai border posts. Bicycles and tricycles etc. can travel on either the road or the footpath, which is also used by pedestrians. The bridge is part of the AH12 Asian Highway Network.
A meter-gauge rail track from Nong Khai station runs along the center of the bridge. Road traffic is stopped when a train is crossing. The formal inauguration of the railway line to Thanaleng Railway Station in Laos, about 2,2 miless (3.5 km) from the bridge, occurred on March 5, 2009. Approval of funding for the rail line from Thanaleng Railway Station to Vientiane, about 9 km away, was announced by the French Development Agency in February 2006 but the plan to extend the service was abandoned in November 2010.
Over the years, Thailand and Laos have released several stamps portraying the First Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge, including a joint issue to mark its 20th anniversary in 2014.
I have ridden over the bridge once (in a mini-van) on a trip to Laos in 2009. I hope to return sometime very soon!
Last year, my sister and her family visited Alaska for the first time. Marilyn mailed postcards to me from Anchorage (previously blogged) and today’s card from Fairbanks. I didn’t record the date they arrived in Phuket but I do remember it taking a long time. After all, Anchorage is more than 10,000 miles away and Fairbanks is even farther!
Mount McKinley is the former official name for what is now called Denali. This is the tallest land-based mountain on Earth — with a vertical rise of about 18,000 feet (5,500 meters), as well as the highest mountain peak in North America — with a summit elevation of 20,310 feet (6,190 m) above sea level. With a topographic prominence of 20,156 feet (6,144 m) and a topographic isolation of 4,629 miles (7,450 km), Denali is the third most prominent and third most isolated peak, after Mount Everest and Aconcagua. Located in the Alaska Range in the interior of the U.S. state of Alaska, Denali is the centerpiece of Denali National Park and Preserve.
The Koyukon people who inhabit the area around the mountain have referred to the peak as Denali for centuries. In 1896, a gold prospector named it Mount McKinley in support of then-presidential candidate William McKinley; that name was the official name recognized by the United States government from 1917 until 2015. In August 2015, following the 1975 lead of the state of Alaska, the U.S. Department of the Interior announced the change of the official name of the mountain to Denali.
In 1903, James Wickersham recorded the first attempt at climbing Denali, which was unsuccessful. In 1906, Frederick Cook claimed the first ascent, which was later proven to be false. The first verifiable ascent to Denali’s summit was achieved on June 7, 1913, by climbers Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, and Robert Tatum, who went by the South Summit. In 1951, Bradford Washburn pioneered the West Buttress route, considered to be the safest and easiest route, and therefore the most popular currently in use.
On September 2, 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey announced that the mountain is 20,310 feet (6,190 m) high, not 20,320 feet (6,194 m), as measured in 1952 using photogrammetry.
Geologically, Denali is a granitic pluton lifted by tectonic pressure from the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate; at the same time, the sedimentary material above and around the mountain was stripped away by erosion. The forces that lifted Denali also cause many deep earthquakes in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The Pacific Plate is seismically active beneath Denali, a tectonic region that is known as the McKinley Cluster.
Denali rises from a sloping plain with elevations from 1,000 to 3,000 feet (300 to 910 m), for a base-to-peak height of 17,000 to 19,000 feet (5,000 to 6,000 m). By comparison, Mount Everest rises from the Tibetan Plateau at a much higher base elevation. Base elevations for Everest range from 13,800 feet (4,200 m) on the south side to 17,100 feet (5,200 m) on the Tibetan Plateau, for a base-to-peak height in the range of 12,000 to 15,300 feet (3,700 to 4,700 m). Denali’s base-to-peak height is little more than half the 33,500 feet (10,200 m) of the volcano Mauna Kea, which lies mostly under water.
Denali has two significant summits: the South Summit is the higher one, while the North Summit has an elevation of 19,470 feet (5,934 m) and a prominence of approximately 1,270 feet (387 m). The North Summit is sometimes counted as a separate peak and sometimes not; it is rarely climbed, except by those doing routes on the north side of the massif.
Five large glaciers flow off the slopes of the mountain. The Peters Glacier lies on the northwest side of the massif, while the Muldrow Glacier falls from its northeast slopes. Just to the east of the Muldrow, and abutting the eastern side of the massif, is the Traleika Glacier. The Ruth Glacier lies to the southeast of the mountain, and the Kahiltna Glacier leads up to the southwest side of the mountain. With a length of 44 miles (71 km), the Kahiltna Glacier is the longest glacier in the Alaska Range.
The Koyukon Athabaskans, living in the Yukon, Tanana and Kuskokwim basins, were the first Native Americans with access to the flanks of the mountain. A British naval captain and explorer, George Vancouver, is the first European on record to have sighted Denali, when he noted “distant stupendous mountains” while surveying the Knik Arm of the Cook Inlet on May 6, 1794. The Russian explorer Lavrenty Zagoskin explored the Tanana and Kuskokwim rivers in 1843 and 1844, and was likely the first European to sight the mountain from the other side.
William Dickey, a New Hampshire-born resident of Seattle, Washington who had been digging for gold in the sands of the Susitna River, wrote, after his returning from Alaska, an account in the New York Sun that appeared on January 24, 1897. His report drew attention with the sentence “We have no doubt that this peak is the highest in North America, and estimate that it is over 20,000 feet (6,100 m) high.” Until then, Mount Logan in Canada’s Yukon Territory was believed to be the continent’s highest point. Though later praised for his estimate, Dickey admitted that other prospector parties had also guessed the mountain to be over 20,000 feet (6,100 m).
The first recorded attempt to climb Denali was by Judge James Wickersham in 1903, via the Peters Glacier and the North Face, now known as the Wickersham Wall. Because of the route’s history of avalanche danger, it was not successfully climbed until 1963. Famed explorer Dr. Frederick Cook claimed the first ascent of the mountain in 1906. His claim was regarded with some suspicion from the start, but was also widely believed. It was later proved false, with some crucial evidence provided by Bradford Washburn when he was sketched on a lower peak.
In 1910, four area locals – Tom Lloyd, Peter Anderson, Billy Taylor, and Charles McGonagall – known as the Sourdough Expedition, attempted to climb Denali despite a lack of climbing experience. The group spent approximately three months on the mountain. Their purported summit ascent day included carrying a bag of doughnuts each, a thermos of hot chocolate, and a 14-foot (4.2 m) spruce pole. Two of them reached the North Summit, the lower of the two, and erected the pole near the top. According to the group, the time they took to reach the summit was a total of 18 hours. Until the first ascent in 1913, their claims were disbelieved, in part due to false claims they had climbed both summits.
In 1912, the Parker-Browne expedition nearly reached the summit, turning back within just a few hundred yards of it due to harsh weather. Hours after their ascent, the Great Earthquake of 1912 shattered the glacier they had ascended.
The first ascent of the main summit of Denali came on June 7, 1913, by a party led by Hudson Stuck and Harry Karstens. The first man to reach the summit was Walter Harper, an Alaska Native. Robert Tatum also made the summit. Using the mountain’s contemporary name, Tatum later commented, “The view from the top of Mount McKinley is like looking out the windows of Heaven!” They ascended the Muldrow Glacier route pioneered by the earlier expeditions, which is still often climbed today. Stuck confirmed, via binoculars, the presence of a large pole near the North Summit; this report confirmed the Sourdough ascent, and today it is widely believed that the Sourdoughs did succeed on the North Summit. However, the pole was never seen before or since, so there is still some doubt. Stuck also discovered that the Parker-Browne party were only about 200 feet (61 m) of elevation short of the true summit when they turned back.
The mountain is regularly climbed today. In 2003, around 58% of climbers reached the top. But by 2003, the mountain had claimed the lives of nearly 100 mountaineers over time. The vast majority of climbers use the West Buttress Route, pioneered in 1951 by Bradford Washburn, after an extensive aerial photographic analysis of the mountain. Climbers typically take two to four weeks to ascend Denali. It is one of the Seven Summits; summiting all of them is a challenge for mountaineers.
In 1906, conservationist Charles Alexander Sheldon conceived the idea of preserving the Denali region as a national park. He presented the plan to his co-members of the Boone and Crockett Club. They decided that the political climate at the time was unfavorable for congressional action, and that the best hope of success rested on the approval and support from the Alaskans themselves. Sheldon wrote, “The first step was to secure the approval and cooperation of the delegate who represented Alaska in Congress.”
In October 1915, Sheldon took up the matter with Dr. E. W. Nelson of the Biological Survey at Washington, D.C. and with George Bird Grinnell, with a purpose to introduce a suitable bill in the coming session of Congress. The matter was then taken to the Game Committee of the Boone and Crockett Club and, after a full discussion, it received the committee’s full endorsement. On December 3, 1915, the plan was presented to Alaska’s delegate, James Wickersham, who after some deliberation gave his approval. The plan then went to the Executive Committee of the Boone and Crockett Club and, on December 15, 1915, it was unanimously accepted. The plan was thereupon endorsed by the Club and presented to Stephen Mather, Assistant Secretary of the Interior in Washington, D.C., who immediately approved it.
The bill was introduced in April, 1916, by Delegate Wickersham in the House and by Senator Key Pittman of Nevada in the Senate. Much lobbying took place over the following year, and on February 19, 1917, the bill passed. On February 26, 1917, 11 years from its conception, the bill was signed in legislation by the President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, thereby creating Mount McKinley National Park.
A portion of Denali, excluding the summit, was included the original park boundary. On Thanksgiving Day in 1921, the Mount McKinley Park Hotel opened. In July 1923, President Warren Harding stopped at the hotel, on a tour of the length of the Alaska Railroad, during which he drove a golden spike signaling its completion at Nenana.
The hotel was the first thing visitors saw stepping down from the train. The flat-roofed, two-story log building featured exposed balconies, glass windows, and electric lights. Inside were two dozen guest rooms, a shop, lunch counter, kitchen, and storeroom. By the 1930s, there were reports of lice, dirty linen, drafty rooms, and marginal food, which led to the hotel’s eventually closing.
In 1947, the park boundaries expanded to include the area of the hotel and railroad. After being abandoned for many years, the hotel was destroyed in 1950 by a fire. There was no road access to the park entrance until 1957. Now with a highway connection to Anchorage and Fairbanks, park attendance greatly expanded: there were 5,000 visitors in 1956 and 25,000 visitors by 1958.
The park was designated an international biosphere reserve in 1976. A separate Denali National Monument was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter on December 1, 1978.
On November 5, 2012, the United States Mint released a twenty-five cent piece depicting Denali National Park. It is the fifteenth of the America the Beautiful Quarters series. The reverse features a Dall sheep with the peak of Denali in the background.